Jennifer Horne

Jennifer Horne


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Greetings! I’m a writer, editor, and teacher, and I enjoy connecting with readers and other writers. In November 2017 I was commissioned Alabama Poet Laureate, for a four-year term. My latest book is a poetry chapbook, "Borrowed Light," and my current writing project is a biography of the writer Sara Mayfield. You can find out more about me and my work here, as well as read the posts I write occasionally, as the spirit moves me. I call this blog "A Map of the World" because I think that, as writers, we each map the world through our own lives and imaginations. Welcome to my particular map! To get in touch, you can email me at, find me on Facebook, or follow me on Instagram at eyewitnesspoet. I'm also on Twitter as @ALPoetLaureate.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

A poem for the Alabama high school graduating class of 2020:

It's long been a tradition for poet laureates to write an "occasional poem" to mark specific occasions or moments in time. In these unusual times, I've been moved to write an occasional poem for the Alabama high school graduates of 2020, titled "Beyond the Numbers." The text and video are below; feel free to share.

Beyond the Numbers
            —for the Alabama high school graduating class of 2020

You are from 67 counties
            in a state of 5 million people
                        a quarter (or so) of whom are under 18.
You are 50,000 in number,
            in a state of 52,000-plus square miles,
                        more than a square mile for each of you!
You are from Mobile, Montgomery, Madison, and maybe even McMullen,
            from Birmingham, Bessemer, and Brilliant,
                        Tuscaloosa, Trussville, Tuscumbia, Tuskegee, and Twin,
                                    Alabaster, Auburn, and Allgood.

You’re told you are the future, the promise, the hope—
            and you are, but you are also
                        sad, tired, frustrated, and discouraged—at least sometimes.
You see so many numbers in the news these days:
            gatherings of 10 or more, 50% capacity,
                        not to mention the number of infections, the almost 500 deaths.

So what’s beyond today? What’s beyond the numbers?
            You are. Unique. A once-in-a-worldtime life.
                        A life that can be inventive, courageous, kind, outrageous,
                                    bring joy, humor, hope,
                                                and open up to the unknown.
This one life. Yours.
            That no numbers can define.
                                    Now, begin.

                                                                                                            By Jennifer Horne
Alabama Poet Laureate

Saturday, August 24, 2019

A Tribute to Toni Morrison

After the passing of Nobel Prize–winning author Toni Morrison on August 5, 2019, Don Noble and I were invited by Dr. Donna Estill, Dean for Humanities and Social Sciences at Calhoun Community College, and Dr. Stephen Spencer, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Athens State University, to participate in a tribute to her. These are my comments from that event, slightly edited for this blog post.

Tribute to Toni Morrison
August 23, 2019, Alabama Center for the Arts, Decatur, Alabama

Thank you, Dr. Estill and Dr. Spencer, and thanks to the Alabama Center for the Arts.

I’m happy to be here as a representative of Alabama’s literary community, and honored to be a part of this tribute to Toni Morrison. When we honor a writer, we not only honor her individual words but assert the value of all writing, and the value of literature in our lives. Everyone here today believes that writing matters, that books matter, and that when a writer as fine as Morrison dies, we should mark her passing and celebrate all she gave us.

As someone who has worked in the world of magazine editing and book publishing, I’m going to talk a bit about Morrison’s work and influence in that world. For those of you who want to be writers, working for a literary magazine or a book publisher is, first, a wonderful way for an aspiring writer to gain insights into the different steps of the publishing process, how editors work and think, and what work is being read and published. And you don’t have to get stuck in either/or binaries about your work, either. An article in discussed Morrison’s work at Random House as an editor, beginning in the mid-60s, and how she believed that writers need not compartmentalize themselves, saying, “I read books. I teach books. I write books. I think about books. It’s one job.” Indeed, in addition to her novels and to her work as one of the first literary editors to champion and nurture black writers, she wrote many critical essays, including a collection titled Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (1992). She saw no reason to limit herself to one role in the literary world, but claimed all.

One of the things Morrison helped do was to erase the idea that writers should be limited by sub-categories, in a time—the sixties and into the seventies—when someone might be known as a good “woman writer” or a novel might be good within the circumscribed realm of “black writing”—that is, good within that limited range. Through her writing and her influence as an editor, she taught the world that all experience was sufficient experience for a great novel, that any kind of writer was simply that, a writer, and that if the material were rendered with skill and art, it could reach any reader.

Those fortunate enough to work with her as their editor recalled her range of vision when it came to other writers. Activist and writer Angela Davis, who worked with Morrison on Davis’s autobiography, said that “Toni was an absolutely phenomenal editor. She paid so much attention to detail yet did not insist on having a work become a reflection of her own ideas. She asked me questions that challenged my imagination—she asked me to remember differently. Our relationship was grounded in that editing relationship, which became a friendship as well.” (“8 Women Writers…”)

So many writers, beyond those she edited, were inspired by Morrison’s work, black women especially. Maya Angelou said: “In the midst of my misery, I wrote a letter to Toni Morrison. We hadn’t even met at the time, but I wrote a letter to her to say thank you. Thank you very much for not only seeing me … but seeing me as an African-American woman and loving me. This is what this woman has done through ten books: loving, respecting, appreciating the African-American woman and all that she goes through, whether it’s in BelovedThe Bluest Eye, whatever it is.” (“8 Women Writers…”)

Tayari Jones, author of An American Marriage, described the process of reading Beloved as feeling “contextualized,” truly seen, through eyes that understood her as kin, not as other. (“8 Women Writers…”)

Morrison’s work as an editor also fed into her writing. Working on a book titled The Black Book, published in 1974, a pictorial history of African American life, from slavery to the mid-twentieth-century, she studied what one writer listed as “things like the head braces that had once held slaves, bills of sale, photographs, sheet music, newspaper clippings, and other artifacts that she and the project editors accumulated over the course of putting the book together.” (“Women & Literature: Toni Morrison”)

The writer and critic Ismail Muhammed said of The Black Book that “It taught audiences new ways to think about black history, as something that could be studied from the ground up through the actions of black people themselves, rather than through the social forces that surrounded them.” In addition to that, for Morrison, all of those items she studied were material to inspire her own writing, taking, for instance, the story of the actual slave Margaret Garner, who would rather have killed her children than let them be taken back into slavery, and transmuting it beyond what she called “a lump of statistics” into the novel Beloved. (“Women & Literature: Toni Morrison”)  

Morrison, was, of course, celebrated for the art of her fiction writing. As Alabama’s Poet Laureate, I am delighted to be able to share some of Toni Morrison’s poetry with you. She is known, in her novels, for her lyrical language, but was not known as a poet. Nevertheless, in 2002, Morrison “offered five original poems for a limited-edition, letterpress book to help fund the [Black Mountain] institute’s work advancing freedom of expression.” These have been described as “Morrison’s first and only foray into verse” and I’m going to read three of them: “Eve Remembering,” “I Am Not Seaworthy,” and “It Comes Unadorned.”

The poet Elizabeth Alexander, who read her poem “Praise Song for the Day” at President Obama’s first inauguration, said: “I can only gesture towards the holistic grandeur of [Morrison’s] vision, her consistent historical excellence, and her invention … The integrity that never flags and the profound love for black people in all of our complexity that animates the work. In encountering and imagining black people as infinitely fascinating and worthy of her sustained artistic attention, Morrison gives us a sterling example of how, while great art is great art, sometimes great art also ennobles a people.” (“8 Women Writers…”)

If you haven’t yet read any of Morrison’s work, I hope you will go directly to the library or a bookstore and find one of her books and read it. The best experience of an author is her words, and thankfully you have many to read. You will not soon run out.

“8 Women Writers on What Toni Morrison Meant To Them,” by Erica Schwiegershausen. Aug. 6, 2019, The Cut,
“Five Poems by Toni Morrison,” The Believer, Aug. 6, 2019,
“Toni Morrison Was So Much More Than a Novelist,” by Ismail Muhammed, Aug. 6, 2019,,
“Women & Literature: Toni Morrison,” by Daniel Donaghy, Sept. 5, 2006, OUP blog,

Tuesday, August 14, 2018

Ernest & Hadley & Sara & Clara

Reading and traveling go together like wine and cheese, each enhancing the pleasures of the other. In preparation for a trip to Paris this summer to attend the Hemingway Society conference, I decided to reread A Moveable Feast, Hemingway’s memoir of his years as a young writer in Paris, written near the end of his life and published after his death. In discovering the city, he discovered his life as a writer of fiction.
I had not read Paula McClain’s The Paris Wife when it came out in 2011, so I decided to read it alongside A Moveable Feast. I would read Hemingway’s mostly true words about Paris in the twenties, when he was married to Hadley Richardson, and then read the voice of Hadley as created by McClain, narrating those same events from the fictionalized wife’s perspective. He said, she said. She said, he said.
This time, I read the “restored” edition of Feast, which includes material omitted from the initial version. At the end, the editor, Hemingway’s grandson Seán, placed a number of manuscript fragments, beginnings of the beginnings of the book, what would become the Preface. All together, read against one another in what becomes a kind of impromptu word collage/prose poem, they sound like Gertrude Stein, with her inversions and repetitions. The first fragment begins: “This book is fiction. I have left out much and changed and eliminated and I hope Hadley understands. She will see why I hope.” Another version: “This book is all fiction and the fiction may throw some light on what has been written as fact. Hadley is the heroine and I hope she will understand and forgive me for writing fiction, some others never will.” And another, farther down: “It was necessary to write as fiction rather than as fact and Hadley would understand I hope why it was necessary to use certain materials or fiction rightly or wrongly. All remembrance of things past is fiction and this fiction has been cut ruthlessly and people cut away just as most of the voyages are gone along with people that we cared for deeply.” In the end, what was published was this: “If the reader prefers, this book may be regarded as fiction. But there is always the chance that such a book of fiction may throw some light on what has been written as fact.”
So, we can say, mostly true. The Paris Wife, of course, is labeled “a novel,” a work of fiction with made-up dialogue and Hadley’s inner life imagined by the author. I turned to McClain’s “Note on Sources” at the back of the book first, and was happy to see that she had attempted “to render the particulars of their lives as accurately as possible, and to follow the very well documented historical record” as she further explored the emotional lives of these characters through her fiction.
When reading historically based novels, I now read the author’s note first, having discovered after reading Joseph O’ Connor’s Ghost Light, based on playwright J. M. Synge, that he had made up great parts of the story. O’Connor writes in his “Acknowledgments and Caveat” at the end of the book, “Ghost Light is a work of fiction, frequently taking immense liberties with fact. … Chronologies, geographies and portrayals appearing in this novel are not to be relied upon by the researcher. …Most events in this book never happened at all. Certain biographers will want to beat me with a turf shovel.” I had the awful feeling of not being able to go back and unlearn the story I’d absorbed. It wasn’t so much that I minded what he’d done, just that I didn’t know from the beginning to take it all with a grain of salt.
Reading the two voices, Ernest’s and Hadley’s, in a sense in dialogue with one another in my reading mind, was an enriching experience, the two perspectives intertwining to create the story of a marriage, of being young and hopeful and impetuous, of thinking you have only good in your future, of walking down cold streets at midnight, a little drunk, and being happy. It tied in with my current writing project, a biography of Sara Mayfield, herself a biographer of Hemingway’s contemporaries, the Fitzgeralds and the Menckens, Sara having been friends with Zelda Sayre and Sara Haardt in Montgomery as girls before they grew up and married their writer husbands.
Sara was a copious journal keeper and letter writer. When she first visited Paris as a teenager in 1922, she wrote, “My darling Mother & Father, So this is Paris!! It really is, I can’t believe it.” When she returned in 1926, at the age of twenty, she wrote her parents, rapturously: “A lifetime isn’t long enough to live in Paris. I have enjoyed this past week more than any other of my life.” Two years later, drawn again to Paris, she did freelance work for the Paris Herald and, after working, “frequently idled along the quais in the late sunshine, watching the boats lower their stacks as they passed under the Pont Neuf, the fishermen casting their lines from the abutments of the bridge, and the artists at their easels painting the narrow streets of the Ile de la Cité, which looked as if they might have been stage sets done by Utrillo.”
In her book on the Fitzgeralds, Sara wrote “As far as I know, philosophers have never decided what the summum bonum of life is; but Zelda and I once agreed that we would settle for being young and in love in Paris in the springtime.” And Sara did fall in love there, with a young newspaperman, writing to a friend “of swift, floating kisses, sweeter for their swiftness, of days that were a song and nights that were a dream—a Paris that shelters Beck and nurtures an old-fashioned romance!”
She might well have had with her on her trips to Paris in the 1920s a guidebook bound in blue cloth with gold lettering, published in 1924, with the sprightly title So You’re Going to Paris! I found my copy, serendipitously, in a used bookstore. The author, Clara E. Laughlin, was a Chicago writer and editor, in age of Sara’s mother’s generation, but more of Sara’s ilk, an independent woman who made her own way in the world. She loved travel all her life but came to the writing of travel books around age fifty, having founded Clara Laughlin Travel Services, specializing in foreign travel advice and planning for women. In her autobiography, Traveling Through Life, published in 1934, she describes the writing of that first travel book, the one on Paris. A good friend and the head of the book department at Marshall Field’s in Chicago, Marcella Burns Hahner, asked Clara “to write a book on Paris . . . the kind of book people seem to want when they’re going over. . . a book on Paris I can sell.” Clara protested that there were already too many books on the city, but on the way home reflected “if I ever did write a book about Paris, there were a lot of things I’d do quite differently from any travel book I’d ever seen. …I’d write it somewhat as I wrote long letters of direction to friends who were going there. I’d think of Paris from the viewpoint of one who is just beginning to adventure among its inexhaustible delights. I’d help readers find their way from one story-spot to another that was its sequence, just as I’d helped friends when I was in Paris with them….”
Nearly a hundred years later, while some of her material is dated, much is not. She writes of having occasionally been burdened by traveling companions who wished to stop at every statue, marker, or plaque and study it. “Now, I love to loiter in front of the statues of Paris—they recall so many stories, and they are so likely to be set up in places where the individual commemorated was a familiar object when he was clothed in flesh and going about his business. But Paris would not be so wonderful a Hall of Fame, to me, if it were not also so very full of people who are being moved by their traditions to make beautiful to-days and glorious to-morrows. Nothing is dead, here! Everything is going on and on, passed from hand to eager hand like a torch making plain the way of truth and beauty.” Apart from a bit of stylistic hyperbole, Laughlin’s sense of the life of the city, of the way Parisians value their past (which includes their writers and artists as well as their politicians and soldiers) while celebrating the pleasures of the present moment, rang true.
I had my own Paris moments—a walk with my own love along the Seine near the Eiffel Tower on a warm evening amongst all the city dwellers seeking a cool breeze off the river; the waiter who was willing to wink and joke with me despite my nearly nonexistent French; hearing a French military band play the American national anthem and then the French in a wooden lecture hall in the Sorbonne, followed by the two different brilliances of Adam Gopnik and Terry Eagleton, each celebrating the effect of Paris on writers who came there to find themselves; the ride in the bateau-mouche at night, passing a jazz band playing on a quay, amplified by the bridge they stood under, and watching the lights of the city slide by like a time lapse photo; the afternoon I sat in the shady hotel courtyard and ate an apple and cheese and read and wrote in my journal and was perfectly content as pigeons fluttered in the bushes and the Eiffel Tower peeked at me from over the garden wall.
Paris is a generator of moments and of stories, and nobody leaves the city without them. And while there were the few, like Ernest and Hadley, whom we still remember, who wove their way into our cultural fabric, there were many more Saras and Claras, lesser lights but lights nevertheless, whose stories I love learning about, and which deserve to be saved as well.

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